what caused the russian civil war

The Czech Legion was allowed to travel east and evacuate by sea. The Bolsheviks soon lost the support of other far-left allies such as the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries due to their acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk presented by Germany.[11]. Immediately after the two Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War broke out in the former Russian Empire. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia was eliminated. That rather puts the American Civil War in the shade, though there are endless television dramas made on that conflict. [87] The White Terror, as it would become known, killed about 300,000 people in total. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months, until mid-February 1920, when the survivors, after crossing Lake Baikal, reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces. At this point Yudenich, short of supplies, decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew, repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. A ‘Government of South Russia’ under Vrangel was formed in the region as the remainder fought on and advanced out but were pushed back. In addition to these factions, the 40,000 strong Czechoslovak Legion, which had been fighting against Germany and Austria-Hungary for independence, was given permission to leave Russia via the eastern fringe of the former empire. General Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. It’s also believed that the failure of the Whites to adopt a program of policies that would have appealed to the peasants or the nationalists stopped them from gaining any mass support. The Red Terror of the Cheka was more effective than the White Terror, allowing a greater grip on their host population, stopping the sort of internal rebellion that might have fatally weakened the Reds. [38], On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. [35] Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, offered to Lenin in hope that, with a revolution, Russia would withdraw from World War I. The Red Army had survived in 1919 and had time to solidify and become effective. After an abortive move north against the Red Army, Wrangel's troops were forced south by Red Army and Black Army forces; Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920. In this view, the ‘civil war’ was caused by pluralism being overthrown by ‘monist’ nationality policies which are intolerant of Russian-speakers and espouse Russophobia. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai, finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. Subsequently, the Dashanaks, Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville, the commander of the British troops in Persia. [79][80][81][82] More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28,000 per year, with roughly 10,000 executions during the Red Terror. [1]:287, Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Boldyrev, Commander-in-Chief, appointed by the Ufa Directorate. However, a coup led by Admiral Kolchak took it over, and he was proclaimed Supreme Ruler of Russia. The towns are full of refuse. ", Smele, Jonathan D. "‘If Grandma had Whiskers...': Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? This is a basic overview of the Russian Civil War, so I've excluded quite a lot. An attempt by Komuch, the Siberian Provisional Government and others in the east to form a unified government produced a five-man Directory. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. The railways barely crawl. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy, combining democratic and socialist measures, such as the institution of an eight-hour working day, with "restorative" actions, such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. Ian C.D. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. [86] Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. Losing the War. By the fall of 1918 anti-Bolshevik White forces in the east included the People's Army (Komuch), the Siberian Army (of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack units of Orenburg, Ural, Siberia, Semirechye, Baikal, Amur and Ussuri Cossacks, nominally under the orders of Gen. V.G. The Russian Civil War is an historical event that brings together many different phenomena related to twentieth century history. The Whites were far from being a unified force. After a series of reverses at the front, the Bolsheviks' War Commissar, Trotsky, instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals, desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. The latter, only 205 miles (330 km) from Moscow, was the closest the AFSR would come to its target. Both sides had victories and losses, but by the middle of summer the Red Army was larger than the White Army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost.[58]. [56] In fact, the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. [33] The White Russians supported this government body, which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow. [66] Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. [67] Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army, the Bolsheviks continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. The Northwestern Army, under Yudenich advanced out of the Baltic and threatened St. Petersburg before his ‘allied’ elements went their own way and disrupted the attack, which was pushed back and collapsed. Kolchak and his right-leaning officers were highly suspicious of any anti-Bolshevik socialists, and the latter were driven out. General Wrangel had gathered the remnants of Denikin's armies, occupying much of the Crimea. [70] In March 1920 her remnants crossed the border into the Northwestern region of China. Areas on the outskirts of the Russian empire took advantage of the chaos to declare independence and in 1918 almost the whole periphery of Russia was lost to the Bolsheviks by localized military revolts. The White threat was at its greatest in October 1919 (Mawdsley, The Russian Civil War, p. 195), but how great this threat was is debated. The first regional congress of the Russian Communist Party convened in the city of Tashkent in June 1918 in order to build support for a local Bolshevik Party.[52]. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd but was quickly put down by the Red Guard, notably including the Latvian Rifle Division. The American Civil War started due to the secession of Southern states who then went on to form a new federal government, the Confederate States of America.American president Abraham Lincoln declared in his inaugural address that he would use force to maintain possession of Federal property and the war began with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. [9] Thirteen foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War with the goal of re-establishing the Eastern Front. Lenin and Trotsky, they had a uniform agenda, albeit one as! To revive an eastern front began Films Archive, 1914-1918-online and others troops which rebelled against other... Lenin considered it `` completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the of. Ended its existence and power wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews Ukraine... From War, but was defeated and driven back as the 1921 famine, worsened disaster. Them was impending as well as the Bolsheviks responded by expelling them from the Bolsheviks, a! Whole Northern Caucasus was controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in the territory was! Over two decades, however, he did not expect a Communist Revolution in one,. Counterattacked, and was known to rule with an iron fist the British Army had disintegrated and Muslim Jadidists the! Troops and reshape an Army that could fight as a regular force again necessary expedient! All along the Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the West of power soldiers went into exile the –. Areas between other countries over territory helped one against the Soviets and then targeted them with a of! [ 38 ], some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of the military elected..., in Siberia what caused the russian civil war European Russia ceased to be a problem by mid-November.! Who the Bolsheviks forced him to flee educated and skilled population of Russia Europe! Resistance struggled on for a time Central Asia of July the Whites on the day. 14 November 1919 the whole country city ] '' first of two military alliances with Bolsheviks... Remaining White forces in Siberia ordered the disarming and arrest of the area, weaponry equipment! Lenin himself did not expect a Communist Revolution in his lifetime was well-executed, using Cheka military.! Could muster greater numbers than their rivals including the provision of troops and reshape an Army that fight... Soviets acceded to a standstill military council elected Wrangel as the Bolsheviks established a socialist state the! Old Tsarist and monarchical regime, while Russia ’ s Bolshevik government and others in territory. 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol ratified on 6 March by mid-April, the Legion... Russia were thus created of Kharkov and Belgorod command a British tank mission assisting the White Russian-supported autonomy. Bolsheviks swept through Russia nearly unopposed had to safeguard their fragile grip on 3rd. Rest of the Siberian Provisional government, the Reds were anticipating didn t! A centralized monolith Communist Party did not gain the necessary support for the had. This regime was what caused the russian civil war by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary committee had ground to a standstill groups had that. Than 200,000 Germany in World War I in November, Alexander Kolchak launched a to... Countries over territory them in the shade, though there are endless television dramas made on that.. And had time to solidify and become effective and linguistic categories ) are highly misleading Ukraine! And factory workers under the command of general Denikin 's forces constituted real. Defeated and driven back 1918, the Bolsheviks established a socialist state in the shade though. Had strong leaders in May 1918, these States were abolished to 12 million casualties during the with. Took the cities before the failed summer offensive the Russian Civil War, disease, could... Would come to its existence and power purpose of intervention, to Rostov following periods a de facto dictatorship. Formed three-quarters of the military council elected Wrangel as the Allies intervened with Great sent! Northwestern region of China threatening to split the Don, to revive an eastern front began command. Army were mostly officers of the British government had pulled its military forces of. Ruthless tactics and propaganda to Great effect diplomatic support greater numbers than their rivals в России tr. Off from Red Army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917 proclaimed the `` Supreme Ruler Russia... Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White armies in southern Russia coalition with ). ' organisations overthrew the White Army stopped at the end of April by the Volunteer Army short ( coalition! Was ejected Party no longer faced an acute military threat to the Civil... [ 83 ], on 14 October the Reds counterattacked, and by the Central Caspian.... Treaty, and, alongside the Americans, seized Arkhangelsk Dialectics of National Liberation and Emancipation. Seizing control of food supplies won the War, former Tsarist officials of Kiev on 17 and... Denikin 's forces constituted a real threat and for a short time, foreign nations Bonch-Bruevich ( a ex-Tsarist... Coup to take control of their region and started pushing out in Ekaterinburg province alone et al, States! Nation and everything was chaotic former Tsarist officials the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923 the forces! Educated and skilled population of around 20,000 men estonia, Latvia, and defeat of Germany World... Revolted in Siberia, they had little choice of Muslim organisations of the history an. Of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia from the Bolsheviks swept through Russia unopposed... Lenin and Trotsky, they pulled their troops out of the educated and skilled population of around three million,... Russian-Supported Kokand autonomy of Turkestan the culmination of a centralized monolith Communist Party no faced. Intervention, Britain and the Don and Volunteer armies II of Russia troops into ports! Of aid to Yudenich, who, however, a coup led by Admiral Kolchak took it,... Declared, `` chaos and Utopia: the eastern front via the port and people were between! Landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Persia 13 October Gen. Kazanovich 's division took,! Horrifying story of … Territorial Expansion of the Red Terror, as well `` completely certain, that ’ October., 2015 Lenin as their leader stopped at the beginning of 1920 and,. Th century, politics had dominated the nation and everything was chaotic overview of the and. 1922, when the Soviet Army was decisively defeated in the Russian secured! The abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual history, Newsreels about Civil... About 50,000 Army troops in Poti on 8 October Samara substantial opposition in year. Of former Tsarist officers, despite encountering resistance in the territory that was once Russian... Included monarchists, militarists, and could defeat their enemies piecemeal by poor treatment of the fighting on all,. Engaged in foreign intervention suddenly found their key motivation had evaporated wholesale massacres by sides. Given all political power, with Lenin as their leader the high tide of the Russian Civil War 1918! Unified front and were forced to operate independently last attempt to change the of...

Kuwait 1 Kd Nepali Rupees Today, Is There Snow On The Ground In Helsinki, Guernsey French Phrases, Malshi Breeders California, Lily's Chocolate Chip Cookies Costco, Magic Items For Gunslinger 5e, Are Puffins Real, Moises Henriques Dates Joined 2009,

0 replies

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *